Narrow streets with a pebble floor of river pebbles, houses built in different architectural styles, small farms, low entrances, passageways, a small place – the Jewish quarter is like a small town. It is the only fully preserved Jewish district in Europe and the only Jewish site of Unesco outside of Israel. In this tiny space lived in the time of the densest settlement more than 1200.
The Jewish ghetto already existed around 1340. The town was destroyed several times during centuries. During World War II, the last approx. 250 Jews were expelled or murdered; after 1945 the German-speaking population was also expelled. The old parts of the city increasingly fell into disrepair, but in the 1970s and 1980s, there was no money for complete demolition and new construction, which meant that the old city with its unique ensembles was preserved.